function of lubricants



function of lubricants

Postby grumpyvette » September 9th, 2009, 1:55 pm

I have no idea why so many guys ignore or over-look the engines lube system, when building a high performance engine,and I then see those same guys act shocked when something rather expensive and violent happens to their engines, they act as if the very concept of a valve train failure or bearing failure is totally unpredictable, well its not!
and I can assure you that maintaining consistent lubricant flow volume and pressure to cool and lubricate moving parts are requirements if your engine durability is important.
your stock engines designed to operate most of its life at under 5500rpm and probably making well under 400 horse power, yet guys some how think that the stock oil system is fully adequate if they are spinning the engine at 6500rpm and making 500hp, while the stock system does function remarkably well there are numerous well proven modifications that can enhance the lubrication efficiency.
swapping a stock 4-5 quart oil pan to an aftermarket 7-8 quart baffled oil pan with a matched windage tray can significantly increase the lube systems ability to maintain consistent pressure and flow volume, and cooling of the moving parts .
remember it takes a constant bath of cooling oil flow to clean, cool and lubricate moving components and pressurized oil flow to bearings to prevent rapid wear

use a good 7-8 quart baffled oil pan
Image
read these links

viewtopic.php?f=54&t=2187

viewtopic.php?f=54&t=64

viewtopic.php?f=54&t=3536

viewtopic.php?f=54&t=52

viewtopic.php?f=54&t=65

viewtopic.php?f=32&t=3071

http://www.tpub.com/content/constructio ... 64_101.htm

http://www.ttalk.info/Zddp.htm

http://auto.indiamart.com/auto-consumab ... osity.html

http://www.carbibles.com/engineoil_bible.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motor_oil

viewtopic.php?f=54&t=10186&p=40285#p40285

http://www.insightservices.net/testoil/ ... ctions.htm

http://www.nonlintec.com/sprite/oil_myths.pdf

http://www.mobiloil.com/USA-English/Mot ... _Guide.pdf

Functions of a Lubricant



· Lubricate

o By introducing a film between moving parts, opposing friction surfaces are separated and allowed to move freely without any interlocking of the asperities at the metal surface. By physically separating the moving parts, friction is greatly reduced. The result is less wear generated and less energy required to perform the work.

· Cool

o Lubricants absorb the heat generated at the friction surface and carry it away to a reservoir where it is allowed to cool before returning for service. Oil coolers and heat exchangers are sometimes used to more efficiently disperse heat. Lubricants are an excellent dissipater of heat.



· Clean

o Oil picks up solid contaminants and moves them away from the contact zone. The contaminants can then be removed by filtration or settling in the reservoir. Many oils have detergent characteristics to hold tiny dirt and soot particles in suspension at help prevent sludge and varnish in a system.



· Protect

o Lubricants coat component surfaces providing a barrier against moisture. The presence of moisture in the air causes oxidation, eventually leading to corrosion. Rust occurs when steel surfaces are attacked by moisture. Corrosion occurs when a metal surface is attacked by acids, a byproduct of oxidation. Oils can be fortified with alkaline reserves to counter the corrosive contaminants.



· Seal

o Many lubricants form a viscous seal to keep contaminants out of a component. Greases form physical barriers to protect against dirt and water ingress.



· Transmit Power

o Hydraulic systems use lubricants to protect sliding, contacting surfaces and as a source of fluid power. Fluid under pressure actuates moving parts.

Full fluid film lubrication is defined as sufficient oil film thickness to completely separate the opposing friction surfaces and asperities. In this “perfect world” scenario, no metal to metal contact is occurring, therefore little or no wear is occurring. This will be the case when the proper lubricant is used, and the component is operating under proper load, at the proper speed, and at the proper temperature. The reduction of friction is the result of the base oil forming a physical barrier to separate the friction surfaces. In applications where this is the constant mode of lubrication, anti-wear and extreme pressure additives are not needed. However, when changes in load, speed, or lubricant properties are altered, there is a danger of severe wear due to the absence of additives.



Boundary Lubrication:



When the oil film is “squeezed” to the point where the oil film thickness is equal to the average asperity height, it is called boundary lubrication. When this occurs, severe wear is being generated as a result of asperities coming in contact with each other. This mode is commonly encountered during times of start-up and shut-down, when running speeds are slower than normal. Other common causes are overloading, shock loading, and insufficient lubrication. In cases where boundary lubrication is the norm, such as slow moving heavily loaded equipment or reversing equipment, lubricants must be fortified with extreme pressure additives to reduce friction and combat wear.



Mixed film Lubrication:



Some components operate on a combination of full fluid film and boundary lubrication known as mixed film lubrication. This occurs when the oil film is reduced and some asperities are coming in contact with each other. At this point, the oil’s anti-wear and extreme pressure additives become active and reduce friction and wear. This mode of lubrication is common in moderate speed and load applications, where variances in speed and load are expected.





Hydrodynamic Lubrication:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrodynamic_lubrication

In journal bearings, friction is controlled by hydrodynamic lubrication. As a journal starts to turn in a bearing, oil is pulled into the load zone by the rotation of the shaft. The journal is lifted from the bearing by the oil wedge, allowing it to ride on top of the oil much in the same way that a log spins in water. When the proper lubricant is used, the machine is running at normal load and speed, the friction surfaces are completely separated and no wear is occurring. Once again, the whole of the lubrication and friction reduction rests on the base oil. Due to the high speed application, care must be taken to properly maintain the lubricant to ensure that a breakdown in the oil wedge does not occur. Should the lubricant fail, catastrophic bearing damage would occur.


obviously, if you have coolant getting mixed with the oil theres a coolant leak into the engine, you could be dealing with a blown head gasket, leaking intake gasket, cracked cylinder head, cracked block, loose valve guide or other issues so you need to tear it down and locate the source of the coolant getting into your oil before it does major damage, which it will rather quickly
IF YOU CAN,T SMOKE THE TIRES AT WILL,FROM A 60 MPH ROLLING START YOUR ENGINE NEEDS MORE WORK!!"!
IF YOU CAN , YOU NEED BETTER TIRES AND YOUR SUSPENSION NEEDS MORE WORK!!
grumpyvette

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Re: function of lubricants

Postby grumpyvette » September 12th, 2009, 10:39 am

if your oil is getting dark rather quickly, after an oil change, it can be the result of worn rings, bad valve guides or valve seals etc. but if its a older engine theres bound to be some wear issues.
oil is designed to, dissolve, break loose and transport crud to the filter, where in an ideal world its trapped, in the real world, only a high percentage of the crud gets trapped in the best filters and in most it takes many trips thru the filter for the smaller particulates to get trapped, in an older engine, fresh oil used in an oil change, tends to pick up left over waxes and varnish, its not at all unusual for oil to get dark in under 300 miles, even faster if the old oil and filter were previously,not being frequently changed.
the color alone doesn,t indicate a problem,it simply indicates the oils doing its job If that's the case with your car/truck and the oil color bothers you,ID drain a couple quarts of the new oil and Id add a quart or two of MARVEL MYSTERY OIL to the sump as its high in solvents and detergents and let the car/truck run with that in the sump for a few hundred miles then change the oil and filter again as it tends to flush out the crud.
magnets tend to help because metallic crud is easier to trap than soot.
with the engine up to operational temp.of between about 180f-210f
and using an oil viscosity that maintains at least 15-20 psi at hot idle in traffic,
your engine should maintain a MINIMUM of 10 psi per 1000rpm and max out pressure at about 4500-5500rpm at 60psi or higher
remember the thicker the oil the harder it is to force thru the clearances in the engine, and pressure is how you measure the RESISTANCE to oil flow, but you should use an oil viscosity that at least maintains that 15-20 psi at idle

viewtopic.php?f=54&t=2080&p=5568&hilit=magnets#p5568

viewtopic.php?f=54&t=1800&p=4597#p4597

viewtopic.php?f=54&t=120&hilit=+magnets

viewtopic.php?f=54&t=1334&p=2910&hilit=+magnets#p2910

viewtopic.php?f=52&t=1489&hilit=+magnets

you gentlemen, might want to keep in mind ALL oils are designed to carry heat, from the bearings and combustion process generated crud to the filter , and all oil slowly gets filled with micro crud,soot, acids and breaks down from heat and moisture contamination,over time, oil is cheap compared to major engine failures from lubricated parts failure. and while the newer synthetics are far better, than the older oils, its been my experience that keeping any synthetic oil over about 15,000-18,000 miles between changes even with frequent filter changes is probably a bad idea.
obviously the operational conditions, heat levels and stress levels should be taken into consideration.
now you certainly don,t need to change oil every 3500 miles like has in the past been suggested with the older generation oils. but changing oil every 7,000-8,000 miles certainly won,t be hurting much, and if you want to use the better oils over about 15,000-18,000 miles between changes even with frequent filter changes, thats certainly not likely to cause major issues and changing oil filters every 3500,-4000 mile can,t hurt either
IF YOU CAN,T SMOKE THE TIRES AT WILL,FROM A 60 MPH ROLLING START YOUR ENGINE NEEDS MORE WORK!!"!
IF YOU CAN , YOU NEED BETTER TIRES AND YOUR SUSPENSION NEEDS MORE WORK!!
grumpyvette

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Re: function of lubricants

Postby grumpyvette » December 10th, 2010, 4:48 pm

"S" Status Service Gasoline Engines
SM Introduced on 30 November 2004 Category SM oils are designed to provide improved oxidation resistance, improved deposit protection, better wear protection, and better low-temperature performance over the life of the oil. Some SM oils may also meet the latest ILSAC specification and/or qualify as Energy Conserving. They may be used where API Service Category SJ and SL earlier categories are recommended.
SL 2001 Gasoline Engine Service Category SL was adopted to describe engine oils for use in 2001. It is for use in service typical of gasoline engines in present and earlier passenger cars, sports utility vehicles, vans and light trucks operating under vehicle manufacturers recommended maintenance procedures. Oils meeting API SL requirements have been tested according to the American Chemistry Council (ACC) Product Approval Code of Practice and may utilize the API Base Oil Interchange and Viscosity Grade Engine Testing Guidelines. They may be used where API Service Category SJ and earlier categories are recommended..
SJ 1997 Gasoline Engine Service Category SJ was adopted in 1996 to describe engine oil first mandated in 1997. It is for use in service typical of gasoline engines in present and earlier passenger cars, vans, and light trucks operating under manufacturers recommended maintenance procedures. Oils meeting API SH requirements have been tested according to the American Chemistry Council (ACC) Product Approval Code of Practice and may utilize the API Base Oil Interchange and Viscosity Grade Engine Testing Guidelines. They may be used where API Service Category SH and earlier categories are recommended.
SH Obsolete For model year 1996 and older engines.
SG Obsolete For model year 1993 and older engines.
SF Obsolete For model year 1988 and older engines.
SE Obsolete For model year 1979 and older engines.
SD Obsolete For model year 1971 and older engines.
SC Obsolete For model year 1967 and older engines.
SB Obsolete For older engines. Use only when specifically recommended by the manufacturer.
SA Obsolete For older engines; no performance requirement. Use only when specifically recommended by the manufacturer.

read these links, listed below
your NOT required to use any single one oil, most of the name brand oils with the manufacturer suggested viscosity range and API rating
Image

will work reasonably well and not void your warranty

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motor_oil

http://www.carbibles.com/engineoil_bible.html

http://micapeak.com/info/oiled.html

http://forum.grumpysperformance.com/viewtopic.php?f=54&t=1334

http://forum.grumpysperformance.com/viewtopic.php?f=54&t=2102&hilit=+synthetic


http://www.upmpg.com/tech_articles/moto ... index.html

http://www.api.org/certifications/engin ... 120210.pdf
IF YOU CAN,T SMOKE THE TIRES AT WILL,FROM A 60 MPH ROLLING START YOUR ENGINE NEEDS MORE WORK!!"!
IF YOU CAN , YOU NEED BETTER TIRES AND YOUR SUSPENSION NEEDS MORE WORK!!
grumpyvette

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Joined: September 14th, 2008, 1:40 pm
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Re: function of lubricants

Postby grumpyvette » April 6th, 2012, 11:47 am

I recently helped pull down and inspect a guys 350 sbc that he had that had consistent valve train noise, and eventually that engine worn out a couple cam lobes and lifters.
close inspection indicated there had obviously been less than ideal lubrication over a long period of time and valve train cooling and lubrication was intermittent at best, as all the rockers showed discoloration and sludge and varnish build-up. oil changes were obviously not frequent and several valve springs could be pushed down with hand pressure indicating significant over heating and annealing of the valve springs, several rockers showed galling and the ends of all the push rods looked burnt.
most of the push rods were partly clogged internally with sludge , build up and the oil pump pick-up was partly clogged with oil gasket material. this guy had kept the stock 5 quart non-baffled oil pan and looking at the dipstick I think he had been running only about 4 quarts of oil, when it indicated it was full.
honestly the engines lube system is critical to long term durability, and you really can,t reasonably expect an engine to last if you don,t maintain consistent cooling and lubrication.
IF YOU CAN,T SMOKE THE TIRES AT WILL,FROM A 60 MPH ROLLING START YOUR ENGINE NEEDS MORE WORK!!"!
IF YOU CAN , YOU NEED BETTER TIRES AND YOUR SUSPENSION NEEDS MORE WORK!!
grumpyvette

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Site Admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 14105
Joined: September 14th, 2008, 1:40 pm
Location: florida


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